A New Round of Land Cessions – Part 1

November 6, 2011

First let me apologize again for being MIA. The month of August was extremely busy for me. I did a series of literary arts workshops that took most of my time up. In the month of September I was busy putting the finishing touches on my new novel 1300 Moons. It is now in the production phase and will be available in the next couple of weeks, but more on this later. To make things even more hectic I had to deal with three different medical emergencies in the family. Things have settled now and I can get back to posting to this blog regularly. Thanks for all your patience.

Well it’s now “later”. 1300 Moons has been released and last Friday I had a successful launch. I’m also involved in a 200th anniversary War of 1812 project as a consultant. It’s a graphic novel aimed at the education sector. It will also be on-line and available on DVD with hypertext links to video of various ‘experts’ of which I am one. The videographers are coming in a couple of weeks to Aamjiwnaang for taping. So it looks like my hectic life is to continue! However, I am determined to do a couple of posts a week if I can.

We left off with the First Nations Confederacy under Blue Jacket being defeated by General Anthony Wayne at Fallen Timbers in 1794. The following year chiefs of the various First Nations began arriving at Greenville, Ohio to negotiate a peace treaty with the United States. That summer over 1,000 First Nations people gathered around Fort Greenville. These included chiefs from the Wyandotte, Delaware, Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatomi, Miami and Kickapoo.

This treaty was primarily a peace treaty between George Washington, President of the United States, and chiefs representing the above mentioned First Nations. My great-great grandfather signed as one of the seven War Chiefs of the Chippewa. But not all former combatants were represented. Among those missing and vehemently against the peace were Shawnee chiefs Tecumseh and Kekewepellethe. Rather than deal the Americans Tecumseh with his followers migrated first to Deer Creek, then to the upper Miami valley and then to eastern Indiana.

Land cessation were also included as part of the terms for peace. Article 3 dealt with a new boundary line ‘between the lands of the United States and the lands of the said Indian tribes’. This effectively ceded all of eastern and southern present day Ohio and set the stage for future land grabs. Included in the United States’ ‘relinquishment’ of all ‘Indian lands northward of the River Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and southward of the Great Lakes’ were cessations of sixteen other tracks of land, several miles square, located either were U.S. forts were already established or where they wished to build towns. However, the term ‘lands of the said Indian tribes’ had vastly different meanings to the two sides.

The First Nations wanted their own sovereign country but the United States dispelled any thought along these lines with Article 5. It defined relinquishment as meaning ‘The Indian tribes that have a right to those lands, are to enjoy them quietly…but when those tribes…shall be disposed to sell their lands…they are to be sold only to the United States’. In other words we had no sovereign country but only the right to use lands already belonging to the United States of America!

The Chippewa and Ottawa also ceded from their territories a strip of land along the Detroit River from the River Raisin to Lake St. Clair. It was six miles deep and included Fort Detroit. The Chippewa also ceded a strip of land on the north shore of the Straits of Mackinaw including the two islands of Mackinaw and De Bois Blanc. The stage was now set for further U.S. expansion.

As a footnote the metaphorical language changed at the conclusion of the peace agreement. First Nations had always used familial terms when referring to First Nations and European relationships. First the French and then the British were always referred to as father. The Americans, since their beginning, were referred to as brother. This continued through the negotiations at Greenville until its conclusion at which time the reference to Americans in the person of Washington changed from bother to father.

Unfortunately because of a clash of cultures this patriarchal term held different meanings to each side. To the First Nations a father was both a friend and a provider. The Wyandotte chief Tarhe spoke for all the assembly because the Wyandotte were considered an uncle to both the Delaware and Shawnee and he was the keeper of the council fire at Brownstown. He told his ‘brother Indians’ that they now acknowledge ‘the fifteen United States of America to now be our father and…you must call them brothers no more’. As children they were to be ‘obedient to our father; ever listen to him when he speaks to you, and follow his advice’. The Potawatomi chief New Corn spoke after Tarhe and addressed the Americans as both father and friend. Other chiefs spoke commending themselves to their father’s protection and asked him for aid. The Chippewa chief Massas admonished the assembly to ‘rejoice in acquiring a new, and so good, a father’.

Tarhe eloquently defined a father for the American emissaries: ‘Take care of your little ones and do not suffer them to be imposed upon. Don’t show favor to one to the injury of any. An impartial father equally regards all his children an impartial father equally regards all his children, as well as those who are ordinary as those who may be more handsome; therefore, should any of your children come to you crying and in distress, have pity on them, and relieve their wants.’

Of course American arrogance stopped up their ears and they could not hear Tarhe’s sage advice. Until this present day they continue to live out their understanding of the term father as a stern patriarch; one either to be obeyed or disciplined.

NEXT WEEK:  A New Round of Land Cessions – Part 2


The Indian War of 1790-95 – Part 2

July 24, 2011

St. Clair’s Shame left the fledging new nation in a precarious position. The First Nations had just destroyed the only army the United States had. President Washington put Major General Anthony Wayne in charge of building a new one and Congress appropriated one million dollars toward the project.

 Wayne’s nickname was “Mad Anthony” which he earned during the Revolution, but their was nothing “mad” about the man. He was methodical and extremely determined. Wayne set out to build the new army at Pittsburg. It would be an army well-trained, disciplined and large enough to take care of the “Indian problem”. And he would be sure to take enough time to ensure a successful campaign.

He began recruiting in June of 1792. His goal was an army of 5,120 officers, NCOs and privates whipped into the crack troops needed to defeat a formidable enemy. By the end of 1792 he had moved 22 miles south of Pittsburg to Legionville where he wintered. In the spring of 1793 he moved to Hobson’s Choice on the Ohio River between Cincinnati and Mill Creek. Finally, in October of 1793 he made his headquarters near Fort Hamilton.

Wayne received new recruits daily all the time relentlessly drilling them into the army he knew he needed. But all did not go well with the project. Desertion rates were extremely high. The First Nation’s stunning successes on the Wabash and in the Maumee Valley had instilled terror in the hearts of ordinary pioneers and moving further toward “Indian Country” only heightened their fear. Many new recruits would desert at the first sign of trouble.

The problem had become so chronic that Wayne posted a reward for the capture and return of any deserter. After a court-martial the guilty would be severely punished usually by 100 lashes or sometimes even executed. An entry in the Orderly Book Mss. dated August 9, 1792 reads, “Deserters have become very prevalent among our troops, at this place, particularly upon the least appearance, or rather apprehension of danger, that some men (for they are unworthy of the name of soldiers), have lost every sense of honor and duty as to desert their post as sentries, by which treacherous, base and cowardly conduct, the lives and safety of their brave companions and worthy citizens were committed to savage fury.”

Meanwhile, warriors from other First Nations joined the confederacy Little Turtle and Blue Jacket had forged. In October 1792 the Shawnee hosted a congress held at the Glaize, where the Auglaize River flows into the Maumee. Delegates from the nations whose territories were being defended attended. These were Wyandotte from Sandusky, Delaware, Shawnee, Mingo, Miami, Munsee, Cherokee and Nanticoke. Also attending were other First Nations from further away but all offering support for the war effort. Some of these were Fox and Sauk from the upper Mississippi, Six Nations and Mahican from New York, Iroquois from the St. Lawrence and Wyandotte from Detroit. There were also many warriors from the Three Fires Confederacy. They were Ottawa, Potawatomi and Chippewa from Detroit as well as Chippewa from Aamjiwnaang and Saginaw. There were even some Chippewa from Michilimackinac. This was the largest First Nation congress every brought together by First Nations alone.

Even though the United States had suffered two humiliating defeats at the hands of the First Nation Confederacy they still had little respect. Henry Knox characterized them as Miami and Wabash Indians together with “a banditti, formed of Shawanese and outcast Cherokees”.  However, because their military was in shambles and they had a deficiency in revenue peaceful negotiations were preferrable to another war.

Washington at first sent delegates to the Glaize from their First Nation allies with offers to negotiate. There were still some groups of individual First Nations friendly with the Americans despite the treatment received. The delegation of “U.S. Indians” arrived and the celebrated Seneca orator Red Jacket spoke for the U.S.

Red Jacket rose to speak to the nearly one thousand conferees at the Glaize. He spoke on two strings of wampum bringing the American message that even though they defeated the mighty British and now all Indian territories belonged to them by right of conquest they may be willing to compromise. They offered to consider accepting the Muskingum River as the new boundary between the United States and “Indian Country”. But the Confederacy saw no need to compromise. After all they had defeated American armies not once but twice in the last two years. They insisted the boundary agreed to in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768 be adhered to. That boundary was the Ohio and they would accept no other. 

The Shawnee chief Painted Pole reminded Red Jacket that while his Seneca group was in Philadelphia cozying up to the Americans the Confederacy was busy defending their lands. Now he was at the Glaize doing the Americans dirty work. He accused Red Jacket of trying to divide the Confederacy and demanded that Red Jacket speak from his heart and not from his mouth. Painted Pole then took the wampum strings that Red Jacket had spoken on and threw them at the Seneca delegation’s feet. Red Jacket was sent back to the Americans with the Confederacy’s answer, “there would be no new boundary line”.

There was a tell-tale sign at that conference that Red Jacket’s task would be difficult if not impossible. In normal negotiations the Civil chiefs would sit in the front with the War Chiefs and warriors behind them. In this arrangement it would be the much easier Civil Chiefs that would negotiate. But at the Glaize the War Chiefs sat in front of the Civil Chiefs meaning that Red Jacket would be dealing with the War Chiefs.

The British sat in the wings waiting for the new republic’s experiment in democracy to fail and hoping at least for an “Indian boundary state” to be formed. The Spanish at New Orleans also sat by hoping for this new “Indian State” as it would serve as a buffer state preventing American expansion into Illinois country. The British even had observers at the Great Congress at the Glaize in the person of Indian Agent Alexander McKee and some of his men. Hendrick Aupaumut, a Mohican with Red Jacket’s emissaries, accused McKee of unduly influencing the conference’s outcome. But the Americans were not about to be deterred so easily.

NEXT WEEK:  The Indian War of 1790-95 – Part 3


The Indian War of 1790-95 – Part 1

July 9, 2011

United States’ Indian policy grew out of the idea that because First Nations fought on the side of the British during the Revolutionary War they lost the right of ownership to their lands when Britain ceded all territory east of the Mississippi. First Nations were told that the United States now owned their territories and they could expel them if they wished to do so. This right of land entitlement by reason of conquest stemmed from the hatred of “Indians” which had been seething for decades and the arrogance instilled by victory over the British. They needed First Nation’s lands northwest of the Ohio River to sell to settlers in order to raise much-needed revenue. But the impoverished new nation could not back up their new policy. So they took a different tact.

In March of 1785 Henry Knox was appointed Secretary of War and he began to institute a new policy. He proposed to Congress that there were two solutions in dealing with the First Nations. The first was to raise an army sufficient to extirpate them.

However, he reported to Washington and Congress that they didn’t have the money to fund such a project. The estimated population of the First Nations East of the Mississippi and south of the Great Lakes was 76,000. The Miami War Chief Little Turtle’s new “Confederation of Tribes” were quickly gaining numbers and strength and they were determined to stop American advancement at the Ohio. To try to beat them into submission not only seemed infeasible but immoral. He argued it was unethical for one people to gain by doing harm to another people and this could only harm America’s reputation internationally.

The second solution, which he favored, was to return to the pre-revolutionary policy of purchasing First Nation Lands through the cessation treaty process. In order to sell this idea to Washington and Congress he pointed out that the First Nations tenaciously held on to their territories and normally would not part with them for any reason. This was because being hunting societies the game on their lands supported their population. But, as proven in the past, time and again, when too many settlers moved into their territories game became scarce. Because the land was overrun by whites and ruined as a hunting territory they would always consider selling their territory and move their population further west

In 1785 an Ordinance was passed by Congress dividing the territory north and west of the Ohio River into states to be governed as a territory. In 1787 this Ordinance was improved upon by passing the Northwest Ordinance appointing Major General Arthur St. Clair governor of the new territory. The new Ordinance covered a huge tract of land encompassing the present-day states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin. Land would now be purchased and hostilities would cease unless “Indian” aggression were to provoke a “just war”. America was determined to expand westward as its very existence depended upon it. Clearly there would be “just wars”.

The first of these cession treaties was signed at Fort Harmar in 1789. This small cession did little to change the minds of the First Nations Confederacy. Hostilities continued provoking the first of the “just wars”. In 1790 President Washington authorized St. Clair to raise troops to punish Little Turtle’s  Confederacy of Miami, Shawnee, Ottawa, Potawatomi and Ojibwa nations. He raised an army of 1,200 militia and 320 regulars and set out from Fort Washington, Cincinnati, under the command of Brigadier General Josiah Harmar.

Little Turtle retreated before Harmar’s lumbering army. He led Harmar deep into enemy territory where he had set a trap in the Maumee River valley near present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Harmar’s army was strung out in one long column. The trap was sprung and Little Turtle attacked Harmar’s flank killing 183 and wounding 31. Panic set in. Harmar retreated in disarray. Little Turtle pursued intent on wiping out the American army.  However, an eclipse of the moon the next night was interpreted as a bad omen so the pursuit was called off.

General Harmar claimed a victory but had to face a board of inquiry. The defeat was whitewashed but Harmar was replaced by General St. Clair who was a hero of the Revolutionary War. Little Turtle’s stunning success bolstered the ranks of the Confederacy. In 1791 St. Clair raised another army of 1,400 militia and 600 regulars. He marched them out of Fort Washington and took up a position on high ground overlooking the Wabash River.

Little Turtle and his war council decided take the Americans head on. Not their usually tactic it took St. Clair by surprise. Confederacy warriors scattered the Kentucky Militia. Other militiamen shooting wildly killed or wounded some of their own men. Bayonet charges were mowed down by fire from the surrounding woodlands. St. Clair tried to rally his troops but could not. With General Richard Butler, his commanding officer, wounded on the battlefield he ordered a retreat. It was no orderly one. Most flung their rifles aside and fled in a panic.

The American army was completely destroyed. Suffering nearly 1,000 casualties it would be the worst defeat ever suffered by the United States at the hands of the First Nations. Washington was livid. He angrily cursed St. Clair for being “worse than a murderer” and the defeat on the Wabash became know as St. Clair’s Shame. On the other hand First Nations’ hopes and confidence soared. 

NEXT WEEK: The Indian War of 1790-95 – Part 2


The American Revolution – Part 2

June 12, 2011

In 1778 the British send 200 of Colonel John Butler’s Rangers into the Wyoming Valley to evict 6,000 illegal immigrants who were squatting on “Indian lands”. They had with them 300 of their First Nation allies mostly members of the Three Fires Confederacy. The Wyoming valley was situated in the middle of the Seneca’s best hunting grounds and land never ceded by them.

Most of the forts the illegals had built were quickly abandoned and the inhabitants fled. Fort Forty was the lone exception. When the warriors feigned a withdrawal the colonials foolishly poured out of their fort and into an ambush. This resulted in the killing of 227 of them. 

The Revolutionary government turned to propaganda releasing a series of outlandish stories of the “massacre””. One such story read that it was a “mere marauding, a cruel and murderous invasion of a peaceful settlement…the inhabitants, men women and children were indiscriminately butchered by the 1,100 men, 900 of them being their Indian allies”. In truth there was only 500 men, 300 of them being their First Nation allies. And according to an exhaustive study done by Egerton Ryerson only rebel soldiers were killed and the misinformation put out by the Congress Party was totally exaggerated and highly inflammatory.

Colonial propaganda was designed to inflame hatred among the populace toward the British’s First Nation allies. However, it had the effect of inflaming hatred toward all First Nation’s people due to the decades of violence along the frontier over land. The frontiersmen were convinced they had the right to push ever westward while harboring in their hearts the axiom “the only good Indian is a dead Indian”.

General Washington bought into his own government’s propaganda releases. In 1779 he decided to act. The Six Nation Iroquois League was divided on where their loyalties lay. Only the Oneida and Onondaga backed the rebel cause and even their loyalties were split. Washington charged General John Sullivan with a war of extermination against the Iroquois. Sullivan headed into Iroquois territory with an army of 6,500 men. His war of extermination was a failure but he did destroy forty Seneca and Cayuga towns along with burning all their crops. Although it is true that atrocities were committed by both sides those committed by the rebels were mostly forgotten. During this campaign the Iroquois dead were scalped and in one instance one was skinned from the waist down to make a pair of leggings!

The famished Iroquois fled to Niagara where they basically sat out the rest of the war. With their crops destroyed the British supplied them with the necessities putting a tremendous strain on their war effort. This expedition earned George Washington the infamous nickname of “Town Destroyer”. Now not only was any hope gone of assistance from the Shawnee but also the Iroquois.

Meanwhile, in Illinois country George Rogers Clark was determined to retake Fort Sackville at Vincennes. He had captured it the year before only to lose it to Colonel Hamilton who had marched immediately from Detroit. He left Kaskaskia on February 5th marching his 170 militiamen across flooded plains and waist deep, freezing water. When he arrived at Vincennes he used the old dodge of marching his men across a small patch of tableland visible to the fort. He repeatedly marched them across this plateau giving the enemy the impression that he had many more men than he actually had. The history books claim that this had such an alarming affect on the First Nations at the fort that they were “scared off” by the ruse and the fort fell immediately.

It is true that the British were abandoned by their First Nation allies. They were members of the Three Fires Confederacy. It is not true that they were “scared off”. Of the 170 militiamen with Clark some were Frenchmen from New Orleans. The French, like some of the First Nations, were also split in their allegiances. Captain Alexander McKee wrote to Captain R.B. Lernoult quite worried about news he had received regarding Three Fires support. In the letter he wrote that the Ottawa and Chippewa had sent a belt of peace to other surrounding nations saying they had been deceived by the British and the Six Nations into taking up the hatchet against the rebels. If they remained with the hatchet in their hands they would be forced to use it against their brothers the French. They reported seeing them coming with Clark and his Virginians and therefore withdrew as they still had great affection for the French. Old loyalties die hard. They were determined now to lay down the hatchet and remain quiet thus leaving the whites to fight among themselves. They were advising their brothers the Shawnee to do the same and that the tribes of the Wabash were also of like mind. This was not good news for the British.

The withdrawal of support from the Three Fires Confederacy and the sidelining of the Six Nations Iroquois that year left the British with only support from the Miami, Shawnee and some of the Delaware. There would be more atrocities to follow but still it would be another three years before the British would see any Three Fires’ support.

Next Week:  The American Revolution – Part 3  

 


The Beaver War 1763 – Part 3

March 29, 2011

The fall of Fort Michilimackinac was a stunning success. Late spring 1763 provided other spectacular military successes for the First Nation alliance. Most of the western British forts fell under First Nation assault.  The others were put under siege.

Fort Sandusky was the first to fall. Ottawa and Wyandotte warriors were let into the fort on the pretense of friendship then opened fire on the garrison of 15 killing them all but Commandant Ensign Pawlee who was given to one of their widows to replace a husband killed in battle.  

Fort Venango capitulated much in the same way a Michilimackinac. The western Seneca, who were also known to Sir William Johnson as the Chenussios and to the Americans as the Mingos entered the fort in the guise of friendship but once inside turned on the garrison. After killing all the British soldiers there they made the commandant write the reasons down for the attack in a dispatch.

The dispatch he wrote stated that there were two reasons for the war. First, for the past two years the scarcity of powder and its price, when it was available, as well as the cost of other necessities was far too high. When they complained about this they were ill-treated and never redressed. Second, When the British began to take over the posts from the French they began to increase their military presence which made them believe the British had designs of possessing all of their lands.

The dispatch was given to a party of warriors heading toward Fort Pitt in order to have it fall into the hands of the British. The commandant of Venango was then put to death and the fort was destroyed. The Seneca also took Fort LeBoeuf and its 16 men.

The fort at P’resqu Isle was commanded by Ensign John Christie and had 27 defenders. They lined the inside of their long two-story blockhouse to reinforce it,  and laid in casks of drinking water. The only door was on the first floor leading inside the fort. The only openings in the walls were long slits for their muskets and the floor between the two stories was perforated so if forced to the second floor they could shoot down upon any intruders. They abandoned the fort, locked themselves inside the blockhouse and prepared for a siege. 

The Seneca, supported by some Ottawa, Chippewa and Wyandotte warriors, shot flaming arrows at the roof of the blockhouse. The soldiers worked tirelessly tearing off the burning shingles dousing the roof with their drinking water. Meanwhile, some of them dug a tunnel to the well inside the fort which was under the First Nations’ control. They carried buckets of water back through the tunnel to replace their drinking water. The work was so laborious that they decided to surrender on the second day of the siege. On the 22nd of June they were taken prisoner and divided up between the four First Nations. 

The Detroit Potawatomi arrived Fort St. Joseph saying they had come to visit their relatives. They informed the commandant, Ensign Schlosser, that they wished to come into the fort to which him a good morning. They seized Schlosser and attacked the fort. Their numbers were so great that they slaughtered all but three of the garrison in about two minutes. A Mr. Winston and a Mr. Hambough hid in the house a Frenchman named Louison Chivalie for four days before being discovered. They were taken prisoner and Hambough and a Mr. Chim were sent south to Illinois but Winston was kept at St. Joseph.

Fort Miami on the Miami River suffered the same fate as the other forts in the region. It was attacked  on the 27th of May by the Miami and some Delaware. Fort Miami’s commandant, Ensign Holmes, had a Miami mistress but she betrayed him by luring him outside the fort and into a trap where he was killed. They then attacked the fort killing half the garrison. The other half was taken prisoner and shipped down the Wabash River to Fort Ouiatinon to be added to the prisoners there. Not one was killed at Ouiatinon as the whole garrison of 20 men surrendered after their commandant, Lieutenant Edward Jenkins, was also lured outside the fort where he was seized and threatened with death if the garrison did not surrender. Then all the prisoners were taken to Fort Chartre on the Mississippi River. This fort was still in French hands under the command of J. Neyeon de Villiere.

The forts that were closer in proximity to the colonies were better able to withstand the First Nation onslaught. Forts Ligonier and Bedford were able uito hold out against the siege tactics of the First Nations. The Delaware, who had joined the alliance in full, took over the siege from the Seneca and the Chippewa. They had even less luck.

Fort Pitt was commanded by a Swiss soldier of fortune who had joined the British army. Captain Simeon Ecuer had taken the words of General Amherst literally. Amherst, in responding to the upheaval, had said to Colonel Bouquet in June “that blankets should be infected with small pox and given to the Indians as presents.”  Ecuer did just that. Small pox raged through the Delaware villages that summer.

If you happened to be English “Indian County” was not the place to be in the summer of 1763. Just before the fall of Fort Miami five Frenchmen, Miny Chain, Jacques Godfrey and Messrs. Beauban, Chavin and Labadee were with a band of Ottawa and Chippewa warriors at the mouth of the Miami River. They spotted John Welch, a trader from Fort Miami, on his way to Detroit with two boats loaded down with pelts.

The warriors hid in the forest while Chain beckoned Welsh and his party to shore. When they landed they were taken prisoner and their goods divided up. Chain and Godfrey took their prisoners to Fort Miami to be added to the prisoners there. The other three returned with their share, including Welch, to Detroit. When they arrived the Ottawa seized their plunder, killed Welch, and took the goods saying that all plunder belonged to the First Nations.

King Beaver, Shingas and four other friendly Delaware chiefs came to an English trader named Colhoun who was at their town of Tuscarora. They informed him of the British forts falling like autumn leaves. They also told him that a trader named Hugh Crawford and a boy were taken prisoner at the mouth of the Miami but six others were killed. Five English traders were also killed at Salt Lick Town on Salt Springs Creek. They warned him to remove himself and his men to a safer place as they saw tracks of a large war party heading their way. 

Later they send Daniel, one of their chiefs, and two others to escort them safely to Fort Pitt. But these three were not friendly Delaware, but had joined the alliance. They refused to let them bring their weapons with them saying the three were sufficient to escort them safely. The next day as they were crossing Beaver Creek they were attacked by a war party. The three Delaware disappeared immediately and of Colhoun’s party of fourteen only Colhoun and two others escaped. Although they became lost they were eventually able to make it to Fort Pitt.

NEXT WEEK:  The Beaver War 1763 – Part 4


Fort Duquesne – An Encore 1758 Part 2

February 5, 2011

By May 1758 word has spread throughout the territories that the British under General Forbes was preparing to march on Fort Duquesne with an army of 7,000 men. This included 1,200 Highlanders, a detachment of Royal Americans with the balance made up of militia from Pennsylvania, Virgina, Maryland and North Carolina.

The Three Fires Confederacy which included Ojibwa, Ottawa and Potawatomi warriors gathered at Detroit in July. The Wyandotte joined them and they all marched off to the defence of Fort Duquesne. The memory of Braddock’s defeat fresh in their minds and the vast amount of plunder gotten drove the warriors on. Their design was a repeat of 1756.

The first decision was which route to take. Washington, being a loyal Virginian, favoured the road that Braddock had cut which led from Virgina. Forbes favoured a new road that would have to be cut through the Pennsylvanian wilderness. It would be a more direct route and only have to cross one range of the Alleghenies. There would be time enough to accomplish the road as Forbes planned to take his time advancing on the French fort. He knew the warriors there would tire of waiting for him and would have to abandon the field to return to their territories for their winter hunt. Thinking Washington’s argument was more politically driven than sound military strategy Forbes won out. By July the advance guard under Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Bouquet was camped near Raystown the site of present day Bedford, Pennsylvania.

Governor Vaudreuil sent supplies to Fort Duquesne with reinforcements to follow. Unfortunately, the supplies were at Fort Frontenac awaiting the reinforcements when Bradstreet arrived and captured them. The reinforcements were on their way from Montreal when they got word of the fall of Fort Frontenac, so with no supplies they returned to Montreal. There would be no help for the under garrisoned Fort Duquesne except for the warriors who arrived that summer.

 Meanwhile, Forbes had received word of the discontent of the Ohio First Nations. He enlisted the help of Christian John Post a Moravian missionary who knew the Delaware well, had lived among them and had married one of them. Most importantly he was well trusted by them. He arrived at the Delaware town of Kushkushkee north-west of Fort Duquesne where he met with chiefs King Beaver, Shingas and Delaware George. His message from the Governor of Pennsylvania was well received there so they took him to another town nearby.

Post got a different kind of reception there. The young warriors were in a nasty mood. Some wanted to kill him on the spot but others wanted to hear what he had to say. His message pleased them but they insisted he go with them to Fort Duquesne to deliver the message to the chiefs and warriors there. He resisted the dangerous proposal but the Delaware would accept nothing less.

When they arrived at the fort the French insisted he be turned over to them. The Delaware refused insisting that they all hear the words of the Governor of Pennsylvania. So all the First Nations and the French officers gathered outside the fort to hear what Post had to say. He informed the chiefs that General Forbes was on his way with a large army to drive the French from Ohio and that they should remain neutral in the conflict. The governor also invited them to renew the chain of friendship and peace with the British at a conference to be held at Easton, Pennsylvania. This displeased the French very much but there was nothing they could do but watch the Delaware leave with Post under their protection.

The whole Delaware nation met in council and decided that they would take hold of the peace-chain again if the invitation did not just come from Pennsylvania but from all the British provinces. This was done and the conference was held at Easton in October. The Iroquois Five Nations attended it with William Johnson along with the Delaware, Mohegans and a few other nations. The British were represented by delegates from most of their provinces. The result was that the invitation should be sent by wampum belts to all their allied nations to the west. The Moravian Post was given the task of delivering the belts. The French/First Nation alliance was beginning to disintegrate.

Post was at one of the Delaware towns meeting in council with the chiefs when a French officer from Fort Duquesne arrived. He had a belt to present them inviting them to come to the fort and help drive back Forbes. The belt was rejected with disdain. Chief Captain Peter took the French wampum string and threw it on the floor. He then took a stick and flung it across the room and the other chiefs kicked it around from one to the other. Captain Peter said that they had given their all for the French cause and had gotten nothing in return so they were determined not to help them fight the British again. He was referring to Montcalm’s betrayal the previous year.

The French officer was the escorted to a Grand Council that had been called. Post delivered messages of peace from the council at Easton. They were accepted with great pleasure by everyone except the French officer. He was ridiculed by the chiefs and warriors. One called Isaac Still pointed at him and said, “There he sits! The French always deceived us!” They all began to shout whoops of agreement. The officer could take no more. He left the council to return to Fort Duquesne to give his report. The overtures of peace were accepted all over Ohio as far as the Wabash River. The Delaware, Shawnee, Mingo and Miami were no longer allies with the French but were at peace with the British.

NEXT WEEK:  Fort Duquesne – An Encore 1758 Part 3


Fort Willaim Henry 1757 Part 2

January 9, 2011

Well, the holiday season is over and it was busier than usual this year. I hope everyone had a joyous Noel. I seemed to be running all day, every day! But things are settling down now and I can get back to writing. I don’t know if I stated in a previous post or not but I am also writing a historical fiction to be published this year.

James Smith was still with the Caughnawaga Mohawks in early June of 1757 when he wrote in his journal that all the Wyandotte, Ottawa and Potawatomi towns in Ohio country were preparing for war. He also wrote that the woods were full of ‘Jibewas’ who had come down from the upper lakes. These would have been Little Thunder’s warriors from the St. Clair and Langlade’s warriors from Michilimackinac. After the war songs were sung and the war dance danced they all left the territory singing the travelling song and firing their small arms. They were off to join Montcalm and the Praying Indians at Lake Champlain.

Montcalm had gone to the Lake of Two Mountains and Sault St. Louis to take part in the same war preparation ceremonies with the Christian Iroquois or Praying Indians. He brought with him great promises of gifts and prospects of much loot and plunder. His emissaries had done the same over the previous winter with the western nations all in order to raise a huge number of First Nation warriors to compliment his army. As he was moving detachments of French regulars, Canadians and Mission Indians up the Lake Champlain the Western Nations began joining them. By the end of July the whole force was gathered at Ticonderoga. A smaller force had been there since May finishing the fort and sending out war parties to set panic among the settlers along the frontier as well as to reconnoiter the strength and capacity of Fort William Henry.

While Montcalm waited for all intelligence to come in before mounting his attack upon the British fort his First Nation allies sent out sortie after sortie up and down the frontier. In the First Nation worldview war was no game to be played on open fields between soldiers only. The enemy included the old, women and children as well as soldiers. European allies paid for scalps and neither distinguished age or sex. The frontiers of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania were in a state of panic. Settlers didn’t know when their turn would come to be burned out and their families killed.

The French put some normally very able officers over various groups of warriors. But these warriors were no normal military men. They looked only to their war chiefs for guidance all but ignoring their French officers. Saint-Luc de la Corne was supposedly in charge and was called the ‘General of the Indians”. Several other officers had ‘charge’ of the various groups. All of these Frenchmen, including interpreters, had lived most of their lives among the nations. They were well acquainted with their culture and understood their real lack of authority over them.

The so-called ‘Mission Indians’ numbered some eight hundred chiefs and warriors and were made up of Iroquois from Caughnawaga, Two Mountains and Le Presentation as well as the Wyandotte of Detroit and Lorette. They also included Algonquin speaking nations; Nipissing from the lake by the same name, Abenaki from St. Francis, Becancour, Missisqui and Penobscot as well as Algonquin from Trois Riviere and Two Mountains. Finally there were Micmac and Malecites from Acadia. Three missionaries were assigned to the “Praying Indians”. They were Abbe Picquet to the Iroquois, Father Mathevet to the Nipissing and Father Roubaud to the Abenaki.

There were also among the throng 1,000 well armed warriors from the western nations all painted for war. There were Ottawa from Michillimackinac, Saginaw and Detroit; Saulteax Ojibwa from Lake Superior and St. Clair; Potawatomi from St. Joseph and Detroit as well as Delaware from Ohio. From further west came the Menominee, Sauk, Fox and Winnebago from Wisconsin. There were also Miami from Illinois and finally Iowa from the Des Moines. All were assigned interpreters except the Iowa because no Frenchmen spoke the language. 

The size of the force at Ticonderoga numbered 8,000 men of which nearly 2,000 were First Nation warriors. When the whole force was settled they gathered in one great assembly. Their war chiefs were distinguished by the gorget that they wore to protect their necks and their civil chiefs by the large King’s medal hung around them. Montcalm spoke first explaining his plan of attack upon the British fort. Colonel Louis Antoine de Bougainville recorded the proceeding in his journal.

Pennahouel of the Ottawa and a major chief rose to speak first for the whole assembly. Stating the fact that he was the elder of all in attendance he thanked Montcalm for his words. Kikensick, chief of the Nipissing, next rose speaking for the Christian nations. He addressed the western nations thanking them for coming to help defend their territories from English encroachment. He then thanked Montcalm for coming to join the battle from across the great sea. Then he assured them all the Master of Life was with them so that only honor and glory could follow.

Montcalm responded with a speech  encouraging unity followed by the presentation of a great wampum belt of 6,000 beads to seal this unity between the First Nations and the French. Pennahouel took the belt and held it up confirming the confederacy. The next day the great assembly of chiefs and warriors spread themselves out in camps along the lake and awaited the time to move on Fort William Henry.

NEXT WEEK: Fort William Henry 1757 Part 3